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Inconel® represents a family of superalloys. Manufacturers prize these high-performance metal alloys for their impressive resistance to high temperatures, corrosion, oxidation, and creep. The passivation layer that forms on Inconel surfaces in the presence of heat and the fact that its grains do not grow in high-temperature environments give Inconel resistance strength even when facing extreme heat, high pressure loads, and corrosive chemicals.
Sometimes considered Hastelloy, Inconel contains a variety of different materials in its composition, with nickel being the most prominent, followed by chromium. Depending on the included elements, varieties of Inconel will have unique characteristics and strengths. Two Inconel types with an array of beneficial properties for holding up in harsh environments are Inconel C276 and Inconel C22. Learn more about these alloys, what makes them advantageous, and about their applications.
Inconel C276 and C22
Of the Inconel alloys, C276 offers great versatility due to the wide array of situations and substances to which it is resistant. In addition to generally withstanding stress that would cause pitting or cracking in weaker alloys, even under extreme heat exposure, C276 holds up particularly well to acidic media, as well as alkalis, chlorides, solvents, and saltwater. The alloy has its composition of nickel, chromium, molybdenum, and a controlled Tungsten volume to thank for this.
Alternatively, Inconel C22—or Hastelloy C22—is another alloy of nickel, chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten with high corrosion resistance. In particular, it provides optimal aqueous corrosion and high-temperature resistance. This austenitic alloy can withstand stress and crevice corrosion as well, to limit the risk of cracking. The high percentage of chromium in C22’s content gives it a high resistance to oxidizing media, as well as sulfidation and carburization, and the nickel keeps the Inconel strong in the face of halides.
History of Inconel
Inconel is a registered trademark of Special Metals Corporation, which is based in New Hartford, New York. They are not, however, the original developers of Inconel materials. These alloys were initially designed to be used in high-temperature, high-stress environments in the 1900s. Inconel 600 was the first of its kind to hit the market, with applications in milk canisters in the 1930s. However, given its high nickel content, it can handle temperatures of up to 600° C for more modern applications in equipment such as nuclear reactors. Inconel 718 and Inconel 625 followed in the 1960s, and then Inconel 617. The latest alloy that Special Metals Corporation has trademarked is Inconel 693, which was developed in 2006 to resist metal dusting.
Inconel Applications for C276 and C22
With a virtually limitless amount of applications that rely on strong materials in high-temperature, high-pressure, and corrosive environments, Inconel C276 and C22 are versatile in that they find a place in so many industries. They are applicable in everything from the aerospace sector to pollution control.
Applications of Inconel C276
Capable of withstanding hydrochloric, sulfuric, and phosphoric acids, chlorine and wet chlorine gas, saltwater, and more, Inconel C276’s various applications include:
- Ducting, stack liners, and scrubbers for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems
- Heat exchangers, evaporators, reaction vessels, and piping within chemical processing operations
- Fans, fan enclosures, ducts, dampers, and stack-gas reheaters for pollution and wastewater management
- Surface and downhole parts for wells
Applications of Inconel C22
Inconel C22 is applicable in the production of highly varied materials, from cellophane to pesticides. Some applications include:
- Scrubbers and scrubber systems, such as SO2 scrubbers and incineration scrubber systems
- Chlorination and pickling systems
- Processing/reprocessing for wastewater and fuel
- Tasks at paper and pulp manufacturing plants
- Tubing and fittings in the pharmaceutical sector
American Alloy Fabricators: Your Partner for Your Inconel Needs
American Alloy Fabricators, Inc. utilizes both Inconel C276 and C22 to manufacture high-performance, customized process equipment. Specializing in design and fabrication, all of our products meet ASME certification standards. Our team is qualified and experienced in working with various grades of Inconel, Hastelloy, Monel, stainless steel, and other alloys to meet our customers’ unique requirements in the chemical, pharmaceutical, biotechnological, and food processing sectors.
A number of specialty applications depend on Inconel for pressure filters and vessels as well as reactors, and the team at American Alloy Fabricators is here to help. Contact us to learn more about our commitment to quality and fast, personal service, or request an estimate today.
Many industries work with products that require processing or storage at specific, uniform temperatures to ensure performance and longevity. To achieve this, jacket coverings on containers enable accurate control within a vessel for constant or precisely cycled temperatures. Stainless steel jacketed vessels play a crucial role in manufacturing, without which companies could incur losses due to product spoilage.
A jacket creates a cavity between itself and the vessel walls, in which a network of interconnected tubes circulates heating or cooling fluid to raise or lower the temperature of the container and its contents. To address applications in diverse industries, there are a variety of types of jacketed vessels available for optimally regulating temperature.
Types of Jacketed Vessels
Stainless steel jacketed vessels vary in their mode of heat transfer, size, and pressure rating, among other factors.
Conventional Jacketed Vessels
Conventional jackets use fluid media like water and oil to facilitate heat transfer between the jacket and the container. Users install the jacket around the container to create an annular space, or an inner and outer wall for the vessel, that later fills with the desired fluids. In many jacket configurations, the designs utilize a baffle welded on the jacket’s internal side that regulates fluid flow. These jackets are often thicker than other types to make up for their design’s lack of reinforcement, which does make them more costly. They also achieve the lowest pressure drop of all types. Conventional jackets are ideal for low-pressure operations of less than 50 psi, though they can also handle certain applications for high internal pressures—up to twice the jacket’s pressure. They’re mainly fitted for smaller containers with a maximum capacity of 100 gallons.
Dimple Jacketed Vessels
Jackets for these vessels are dotted with dimples across their surfaces, and these divots enhance turbulence within the moving fluids of the jacket, increasing the transfer of heat. Dimple jackets are a popular choice as they are thinner and more affordable than the conventional variety without sacrificing strength. They’re also quite versatile, as dimple jackets are available in a variety of sizes, shapes, and pressure ratings that allow for usages beyond just tanks. This helps them to accommodate larger containers for temperature regulation and pressure ratings of as much as 300 psi. However, dimple jacketed vessels are not suitable for running thermal operations that cycle between exceptionally low and high temperatures.
Half-Pipe Coil Jacketed Vessels
Manufacturers can weld a half-pipe coil jacket to a vessel, wrapping it around the container underneath the jacket. The split pipe configuration can regulate the fluid path to raise or lower the temperature of the full vessel or individualized portions of it. Half-pipe coil jackets are pricey given their lightweight metal construction, but not as expensive as conventional jacketed vessels. They are ideal in extremely high-pressure environments as they have a rating of 750 psi. Additionally, they are the best choice for liquid heat transfer as well as high-temperature applications.
Internal coils are an additive feature inside a vessel rather than being an actual jacket. This means that they come into direct contact with the container’s contents, for which they are meant to provide heat transfer. Within the vessel, they will either loop around the internal wall in a spiral configuration or be situated at the container’s base. They can withstand the highest pressures of these heat transfer devices—up to 900 psi, internally or externally. However, it is important to consider the vessel contents prior to installing an internal coil, as certain substances may corrode the coil’s metal casing.
Industries That Use Jacketed Vessels
Temperature regulation and thermal cycling are vital to the processes of numerous industries. These sectors include:
- Chemical and petrochemical
- Distilling and brewing
- Food and beverage processing
- Industrial operations
- Roofing and asphalt
Partner With American Alloy for Custom Fabrication
Well-built stainless steel jacketed vessels will reliably regulate material temperatures in thermosensitive industrial processes, providing manufacturers with a sure way to avoid losses during production. At American Alloy Fabricators, Inc., our team specializes in designing and manufacturing custom jacketed vessels as well as other ASME-certified metal equipment. We utilize multiple grades of stainless steel for our stainless steel jacketed vessels, along with other material options such as Monel, Inconel, Hastelloy, AL6XN, and Alloy 20, to fabricate high-quality vessels, tanks, reactors, and more in virtually any size. We can also assist our clients in the biotechnology, chemical, food processing, and pharmaceutical industries with consultation services, welding, and metal finishings.
To learn more about our capabilities and how American Alloy can support your operations, contact us today.
Stainless steel is an optimal material for tank fabrication due to its corrosion resistance. An iron alloy, it is the chromium content in stainless steel that generates a thin resistant layer of metal oxides. This capability enables numerous industries like food and beverage, cosmetics, medicine, and even chemical processing to safely use stainless steel tanks for storing water, alcohol, acid, gases, and more without degrading the tank or contaminating its contents. As manufacturers can customize stainless steel tanks in a variety of sizes, shapes, configurations, and material selections, learn more about the options for stainless steel tanks to determine which will best suit your application.
Types of Stainless Steel for Tank Fabrication
With multiple types of stainless steel available, the underlying alloy formation can determine which type of stainless steel is optimal for your storage tank needs.
- Stainless steel 304 and 304L. These stainless steel types are popular for their affordability and corrosion resistance in most applications. 304 usually consists of 18-20% chromium and 8-12% nickel. The composition of 304L is similar, but with a lower carbon content to prevent sensitization. Lowering the chromium carbide content improves corrosion resistance for high-heat applications.
- Stainless steel 316 and 316L. Stainless steel 316 has a higher resistance to corrosion than 304 because of its 2-3% molybdenum content, lending it to common uses in chemical and marine storage applications. At 10-14% nickel, the nickel counteracts molybdenum’s ferritic-forming characteristic. The low carbon version of grade 316, 316L, safeguards against sensitization in high-temperature environments like 304L.
- Duplex stainless steel. Duplex stainless steel combines the benefits of austenitic and ferritic materials, maintaining corrosion resistance as an austenitic metal but also adding mechanical strength, a ferritic characteristic. At 20-28% chromium, 5-8% nickel, and 2-5% molybdenum, this metal alloy is highly resistant to stress corrosion cracking. Also, duplex stainless steel is typically less expensive given the lower percentage of nickel in its makeup, and the option of using thinner sheets without sacrificing strength.
Types of Stainless Steel Tanks
Once you have chosen the appropriate stainless steel for your application, there are numerous tank types on the market to best deliver the functionality you need, including:
- Single-walled stainless steel tanks. Most single-walled tanks have a simple, cylindrical construction, with horizontal or vertical orientation options. These storage tanks offer high-level corrosion resistance to internal and external corrosive agents, and are commonly accompanied by a concrete structure as a secondary method of containment.
- Double-walled stainless steel tanks. These tanks feature a primary tank with a secondary wall built around it to protect against fluid leakage. They are ideal for petrochemical applications and EPA compliance. Some varieties contain insulation to safeguard against heat transfer from external temperature variations.
- Stainless steel clad tanks. As an alternative to pricey tanks with thick stainless steel construction, single- or double-side cladding a carbon steel tank with thin stainless steel sheets adds corrosion resistance to the tank.
- Jacketed stainless steel tanks. Used in conjunction with cooling towers or boilers, a jacketed steel tank allows fluid to pass through the area between two plates of stainless steel, cooling or heating the tank contents as required without mixing with them.
- Stainless steel process tanks. These tanks help process the substances they store by dissolving, mixing, or otherwise agitating tank contents. To achieve this, process tanks may utilize a variety of tools like paddles or mixing heads. For added versatility, some process tanks come with specialized features like insulation, dual walls, and monitoring devices for a tank’s level, pressure, and temperature.
- High-pressure stainless steel tanks. For high-pressure applications, stainless steel adds the strength necessary to ensure safe operation. High-pressure stainless steel tank fabrication should follow strict standards like the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.
- Compressed air tanks. Stainless steel is ideal for compressed air tanks for its corrosion resistance, given that the tank will be exposed to air and moisture. With the immense pressure contained in these tanks, they must be strong for serving as air buffer or receiver containers. Again, quality tanks will conform to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.
Stainless Steel Tanks From American Alloy
American Alloy Fabricators, Inc. has a proud history of more than 30 years of delivering quality fabricated products domestically and internationally. Our facility has the capacity for us to manufacture horizontal and vertical tanks in diameters of up to 10 feet. They are non-code and work under atmospheric pressure, with a wide array of applications to give our tanks greater versatility of use. We custom-design and build ASME-certified stainless steel tanks to meet your unique operational needs as well as your schedule, with fast turnaround and on-time delivery.
We pride ourselves on our superior customer service. Contact us today for more information on our extensive options for tank storage solutions.
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) maintains almost universal acceptance in various industries because of their highly safe and up-to-date safety standards for construction of boilers and pressure vessels. ASME Code Section VIII highlights construction code for design, manufacturing, inspection, and testing of pressure vessels and covers. It also outlines mandatory requirements, special prohibitions, and non-mandatory guidance for materials, certification, and pressure relief.
What Is ASME Section VIII?
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ASME Section VIII is dedicated to giving detailed requirements for the design, fabrication, inspection, certification, and testing of both unfired and fired pressure vessels, especially those that operate at pressures exceeding 15 psi.
What Are the Requirements in ASME Section VIII?
In Section VIII of the ASME code, there are three divisions that cover different vessel specifications, including:
- Division One. This section provides mandatory and non-mandatory appendices detailing criteria for design, non-destructive techniques for examination, and acceptance standards for inspecting pressure vessels. It also details rules for use of single ASME certification marks with U, UV, and UM designators.
- Division Two. This section allows for higher stress intensity values but with a more rigorous set of standards than Division One. Division Two contains rules for design, materials, and nondestructive examination techniques for pressure vessels. These rules can be applied for human occupancy pressure vessels, primarily for the diving industry. Division Two also details rules for use of single ASME certification marks with UV and U2 designators.
- Division Three. This section provides a set of rules for internal or external operating pressures exceeding 10,000 psi. There are no minimum or maximum pressure limits set in Division Three, and it details rules for use of single ASME certification marks with UV3 and U3 designators.
What Are the Advantages of Section VIII Compliance?
ASME Section VIII benefits users, manufacturers, constructors, designers, and others by providing highly detailed requirements for fired or unfired pressure vessel design, fabrication, assembly, erection, inspection, testing, and certification. These requirements can be applied to various materials and fabrication processes, including welding, brazing, and forging. Using Section VIII codes ensures compliance with local regulations while achieving cost, safety, and operational benefits gained by following industry best practices.
How American Alloy Fabricators Complies with ASME Section VIII
At American Alloy Fabricators, we provide the highest quality pressure vessel products. Our expert team offers custom design and fabrication of pressure vessels that meet customer specifications and comply with Division One of ASME Section VIII.
American Alloy Fabricators for Your Pressure Vessel Needs
American Alloy Fabricators has provided superior pressure vessels since 1989. We have worked with some of the largest companies in the world and take pride in our strong customer relationships. If you have any questions about our ASME Section VIII compliant products, contact us today.